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Many fly fishers overlook the importance of terrestrials, land born insects included in the trout’s diet, as an excellent imitation for fly fishing. With over one million known species these insects play a large part in the trout’s world. Most anglers know about grasshoppers and like to fish them because they are easy to see on the water and trout feed on them very aggressively. The imitations are easy to see, can and should be presented with a splat and the leaders can be stout. This is what makes them easy and fun to fish. Other dry flies call for finer leaders and tippets, need to be presented delicately and can be difficult to see on the water. When it comes to other terrestrials such as ants and beetles, most anglers kind of shrug and admit to not having much experience with them. Unlike aquatic insects, terrestrials, especially ants and beetles, don’t have a hatch period that limits their availability as food for trout. Also terrestrials are not meant to be on the water and make an easier meal than aquatic insects. Terrestrials live in and feed on green trees, plants and grasses. They are very poor flyers and it is inevitable that many of them end up in the water. This, of course, is good news for both the fish and the fisherman. You can fish terrestrials during the day or night all year around using dry fly or nymphing gear.

Terrestrials live in and on green foliage, this bank is good terrestrial habitat.



Grasshoppers are appreciated by both trout and anglers when they are present along rivers and streams during what has been dubbed “hoppertunity” time. These large insects fly poorly and swim even worse. When they land on the water with a splat and start their struggle to free themselves it’s like the dinner bell for trout making them easy pickings for a big meal. Grassy banks and windy conditions combine to send these juicy morsels into the water. Hopper years vary in importance based on early season conditions but even in cool, wet years, like this year in Alberta, there will always be some hoppers available for trout to dine on. One of the best ways to fish these insects is using what is commonly called a hopper-dropper rig (see tip section), where a small nymph is hung under the hopper. The majority of the fish will eat the nymph, with the hopper acting as a strike indicator, but they will also take the hopper at times. If you are going to fish with an indicator it might as well have a hook in it. I like to use a shorter, stiffer leader for hopper fishing. This is usually a 7.5’ 2X leader as these large bushy flies tend to twist the longer, finer leaders associated with dry fly fishing. They also aid in roll casting, which since you are not concerned with a delicate presentation is a very effective way of covering large amount s of water with little effort.

Grassy banks and windy conditions




Ant patterns have saved the day for me many a time. I remember one time fishing B.C.’s Michelle Creek for its large cutthroats. It was fall and the leaves that had turned colour were being blown off the trees and into the creek. This, combined with very little action from our usual dry fly methods was making for a very slow day of fishing. I was getting close to putting on a nymph, which in cutthroat fishing is bordering on sacrilege as far as I’m concerned. Tying on a parachute ant pattern saved the day as cutthroat after cutthroat came to the fly as if they had been waiting for them all day. Windy days are good days to fish ants as, just like hoppers, during their daily routine they get blown off of the log they’re walking along and end up in the water making an easy, tasty treat to the trout. The tasty part I cannot personally verify but I have read that some anglers have actually, in the name of science of course, tasted ants. The reports are that they have a slightly acidic, bitter taste, which obviously appeals to the trout’s taste buds. Another ant incident that didn’t work out as well happened to me on the famous Henry’s Fork of the Snake River in Idaho. We were fishing the Railroad Ranch section of the river known for its notoriously fussy rainbows when a flying ant “hatch” began. Fish were rising all around us and we threw every ant pattern that we had at them to no avail. A quick trip into the local fly shop provided the perfect imitation black ant with white wings, but as you guessed by the time we got back on the water the action had stopped. There were now no rising fish to be seen anywhere on this stretch of the river. We tied on our new purchases and half heartedly tossed them into areas where, less than an hour ago, fish were gorging themselves. Our offerings were soundly ignored. Ants will work well when nothing else is hatching but for some reason, maybe their good taste, trout will often take ants even during heavy hatches of other insects. This is a good tactic for fishing difficult hatches like Tricos which are a very small Mayfly that hatch in great numbers and is often fed on during the spinner fall. At this stage the spent mayflies are laying in the surface film with their wings out to the sides, making the imitation you are extremely difficult to see. At these times, for some reason, using a red flying ant pattern can be extremely effective. It is also a whole lot easier for the angler to see than a Trico imitation. Trout seem to relish this variation from the numerous Tricos and will take the ant pattern quite regularly.





There is somewhere in the neighbourhood of 26,000 species of beetles in North America. Many of these can be found residing along trout streams and like hoppers and ants some of them end up in the water. The biggest problem with beetles is that because of their generally dark colour and low profile the flies we use to imitate them can be very hard to see. A piece of bright yarn or foam tied on to the top of a pattern can help the angler follow his offering on the water. Another effective method is to tie a fly that is more visible and attach a foot long piece of tippet with the beetle pattern tied at the end. This locator fly will help you focus on your fly and even if you can’t spot it precisely, at least you know its location within a one foot radius. You can then set the hook on any rises in that zone. I have had quite a bit of success over the years fishing beetles when nothing else is on the water. Some species will climb trees to eat caterpillars while others like to hang out in cracks and crevices of trees including overhanging logs. All it takes is a little bit of wind and they end up in the water providing an easy meal for a hungry trout.

Cutthroat can occasionally get stubborn, try using a beetle next time you’re faced with selective trout.

Other terrestrials



Hoppers, beetles and ants are by no means the only terrestrial insects of importance to the trout angler. Bees, wasps, crickets, moths and caterpillars, amongst others, all find their way into the water at times to become trout food. A well stocked terrestrial fly box will have few of these other patterns but I would never ever be caught on the river without a selection of hoppers, beetles and ants. Remember that Terrestrials end up in the water by accident and very few ever escape so they are at the mercy of the current. Wherever you get converging currents, seams or foam lines there is bound be food. Some of it will very likely be Terrestrials and imitations will provide some great action with explosive takes on hoppers or soft sips for ants and beetles. This is a fishing method that not only is effective all day long but all season long. From early spring until late fall and even in the dead of winter on open water there are terrestrials around, going about their business and occasionally making that fatal step or suicide leap that puts them into the trout and trout fishers world. The next time you are on a stream wanting to use dry flies, but there is little or no insect activity, try a terrestrial pattern. You just might be surprised at how willing the trout are to belly up to the terrestrial bar.


Previous Fishing Articles
(1) In the Good Old Summertime
(2) A Southern Escape
(3) Springtime in Alberta - Can Thrill You to the Bone
(4) Sunny Day Rainbows
(5) New "Fishing" Year Resolutions
(6) Five Fine Places to Find Trout
(7) Catfishing Revisited
(8) Discover Squamish, an Outdoor Playground
(9) Falling for Cutthroat
(10) New Water and Old Friends
(11) My McLeod
(12) Temperature and Trout
(13) On the Road Again
(14) Tips That Will Make You a More Successful Fly-Fisherman
(15) 5 Ways to Catch Your Trout
(16) The Difference Maker - Reading Trout Stream Waters
(17) Rollin’ on the River
(18) Windy Day Pike
(19) Cures for Cabin Fever
(20) Snowbirding with a Fishing Rod
(21) Alberta’s Spring Creek Browns - Blessings and Curses
(22) A day on our foothill streams
(23) Fly Fishing Crowded Waters
(24) Fly Leaders
(25) In the Zone
(26) Learners Permit
(27) Flies of Summer
(28) Selecting the Right Boat
(29) The Italian Job
(30) Making a difference
(31) Pass the Salt
(32) Hopper Time - Fly-fishing’s Second Season
(33) Pike on the Fly - Fishing New Waters
(34) Fall brings the big walleye out
(35) Hoppertunity Time
(36) Becoming a Better Dry Fly Angler
(37) Make Your Own Fishing Adventure
(38) Early Season Fly Fishing
(39) Walleye Logic
(40) Fly Fishing in the Desert
(41) Grammy’s Fish
(42) Top 10 Trout Lures
(43) All I Want for Christmas – Neil Waugh's Yule Tide Fishing Gifts Wish List
(44) Muskies - The Ultimate Predator
(45) What to expect when fishing the West Coast
(46) Tips & Tricks for Fall Fly Fishing
(47) There’s No Place Like Home
(48) A Golden Opportunity
(49) The Observational Trout Fisherman
(50) Un-matching the Hatch
(51) Alberta Super Bugs
(52) Glass is Back
(53) The Bull Trout of the Athabasca
(54) Speed Kills
(55) Entering the Twilight Zone
(56) Old Man River
(57) The Pink Salmon of the Squamish River
(58) Small stream BT fishing
(59) Fly fishing beyond Trout: getting started
(60) In The Walleye Zone
(61) Zoo Trout
(62) Fly Selection for Beginners
(63) Fly Fisher's Christmas
(64) New Waters
(65) Big Bad Burbot
(66) Looking Back
(67) Out of Africa
(68) Finding Success on Crowded Trout Streams
(69) Mountain Peaks, Fast Streams, Fall Colours And Rocky Mountain Whitefish
(70) The Browns of Autumn
(71) Fly-Fishing Pike Through The Seasons
(72) Walleye Town
(73) River Fun - One Bite At A Time
(74) Fly Fishing Larger Rivers
(75) Going With The Flow
(76) Becoming A Better Fly Fisherman
(77) Swinging The Fences
(78) A View From The Aerie
(79) Dixieland Delight
(80) Atlantic Salmon - The Fish of 1000 Casts
(81) Do It Yourself Pink Salmon
(82) Montana's Cool Missouri
(83) Pretty Is As Pretty Does
(84) Toothy Critters
(85) Hard Water Lakers at Cold Lake
(86) Top Ten Flies
(87) Northern Exposure
(88) Home Water Lessons
(89) Chicken Of The Sea
(90) Sealing the Deal – How to Ensure You Land More Fish
(91) Deep In The Heart Of Texas
(92) Keep It Up!
(93) River Fishing for Fall Walleye
(94) After the Flood - A look at Southern Alberta rivers and streams one year after the 2013 flood
(95) Reindeer Lake - A Diversity of Opportunity
(96) Hawg Holes
(97) Saltwater Salmon
(98) Early Season Dry Fly Fishing
(99) Down a Lazy River - A Fly-rodding Adventure on the Lower North Saskatchewan
(100) The Fly Fishing Season Ahead
(103) Bright Fish from the Land of Silver
(104) Canada's "Other" Salmon
(105) Fall Walleye
(106) Wet Flies
(107) Versatility the Key to Success
(108) Grayling of the Boreal
(109) Teaching Kids To Fly Fish
(110) Size Matters
(111) Fly Fishing Small Streams
(112) Chasing Winter Whites One Lake At A Time
(113) Manitoba's Fishing Jewel
(114) The Twelve Gifts Of Christmas
(115) The Point Of It All
(116) Fishing With Friends-Big Weather Seizing The Day
(117) Fall Fly Fishing
(118) Personal Pontoon Boats 101
(119) Big River, Big Fish
(120) Bottom Bonanza
(121) Fishing Small Flies
(122) So Many Choices, So Little Time
(123) Four Seasons of the Bow
(124) Favourite Lakes - Some Like it Hot
(126) Trout Hunting New Zealand style
(127) Don’t Leave Home Without Them – 10 Lures That Should Be In Everyone’s Tackle Box
(128) Edge Walleye
(130) Smallmouth Bass – An Oft Overlooked Challenge
(131) Four Corners – Four Waters
(132) Chasing Pothole Trout
(133) Springtime Stoneflies
(134) The Torrents of Spring
(135) Drift Boat Fly Fishing
(136) Bust Them With Bait
(137) Cure the Winter Blues with a Good Book
(138) Hot Strategies for the Cold Months
(139) Cutthroat: The Angler's Trout
(140) Terrestrials
(141) Fly In For Fishing Fun
(142) Rocky Mountain High
(143) Reading the clues
(144) Where the Trout Are The art of locating feeding trout in rivers and streams.
(145) K.I.S.S. and Tell Fly-fishin
(146) Fly Fishing 101
(147) To Catch a Big Halibut, or Ling Cod
(148) The Bountiful Bones of Ascension Bay
(149) Grayling in the Eye of the Beholder
(150) Fly Fishing for South Fork Clearwater Steelhead
(151) Manitoba's Red River - North America's Catfish Capital
(152) Eliminating the Spook Factor
(153) Trust Your Electronics
(154) The Most Important Hatch of the Year
(155) Early Season Nymph Fishing for Trout
(156) Finding Success for Ice Trout
(157) Walleye can be Humbling
(158) The Secret to Landing the Big One Finally Revealed
(159) Winter Flyfishing
(160) North Saskatchewan River - An Underutilized Fishing Gem
(161) Hot Fall Pike Action
(162) Tips and Tricks to Save the Summer Slow Down
(163) Reading Trout Stream Waters
(164) Frequently Asked Questions
(165) Streamer Fishing for Larger Trout
(166) The Lure of Big Walleye at Last Ice
(167) Deep Water Perch
(168) Post Spawn Brookies
(169) A Fisher's Life
(170) The River's Last Stand
(171) The Big Ones Come out at Night
(172) Coho on the Coast
(173) Chasing and Catching Halibut
(174) Summer in the Mountains
(175) Peak Walleye Season
(176) Slow and Steady Wins the Race
(177) Last Ice Rainbows
(178) The Burbot Event
(179) Tackle Matching
(180) Ice Fishing Strategy #2 - Going Light
(181) Ice Fishing Strategy #1 - Location
(182) The Lure of Brook Trout
(183) The Shallow Water Hunt is On
(184) Hot Backswimmer Action Happening Right Now
(185) Fishing Among Giants-Pursuing Lake Sturgeon on the Prairies
(186) Adventure at Davin Lake Lodge, Northern Saskatchewan
(187) The Vesatile Plug
(188) Bead Head Flies, Plugs and Shot and other Spring Favorites for Pothole Trout
(189) Planning your Upcoming Angling Adventures
(190) Good Fishing at Last Ice
(191) Maximize the Odds - Use Multiple Presentations
(192) Daily Fish Migrations
(193) Fish Migrations - Following the Spawn
(194) Lake Whitefish - An Ice Fishing All Star
(195) Pick Your Favorite Brook Trout Lake...and Go Fishing
(196) A Look Ahead to Great Trout Fishing
(197) Wrestling White Sturgeon on the Fraser
(198) The Fun in Ultra Light
(199) Flyfishing and Leadcore Lines
(200) Embrace the Spirit of Adventure
(201) Never Stop Learning
(202) Ice Fishing is Getting Hot
(203) Jigging through the Ice
(204) An Ice Fishing Unsung Hero – The Setline
(205) Rainbows on Ice
(206) The Season of Ice Begins
(207) Red Hot Fall Pike Action
(208) Hitting it Right with Water Boatman
(209) Facts On Cats
(210) West Coast Adventure
(211) June Walleye Frenzy
(212) Aerated Lakes are Big Trout Factories
(213) First Fish of the Year Pothole Rainbows and Browns
(214) Northern Exposure
(215) Sometimes There is More to Fishing Than Catching Fish
(216) Early Season Pike On The Fly
(217) Man Overboard
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